Catégorie : Ubuntu

Serveur de dépot local

Create Your Own Local Mirror of the Ubuntu Repositories
Category: Software / Tag: server, ubuntu / Add Comment

If you have several Ubuntu machines on a network, you might like to mirror the Ubuntu repositories locally so that you’re not wasting bandwidth downloading the same packages from the internet for every single machine. If you’ve already got an Ubuntu server up and running for some other task (such as ldap+kerberos+nfs type server, or a local web server) it’s very easy to add mirroring repository functionality to it. All you need is a spare ten minutes and ~35GB of free space for main, universe and multiverse and ~70GB if you also want the source packages (deb-src).

First step is to install apt-mirror:

sudo apt-get install apt-mirror

Now let’s edit the configuration file for apt-mirror:

sudo nano /etc/apt/mirror.list

The default configuration is as follows:

############# config ##################
#
# set base_path /var/spool/apt-mirror
#
# set mirror_path $base_path/mirror
# set skel_path $base_path/skel
# set var_path $base_path/var
# set cleanscript $var_path/clean.sh
# set defaultarch
# set postmirror_script $var_path/postmirror.sh
# set run_postmirror 0
set nthreads 20
set _tilde 0
#
############# end config ##############

deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse

deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse

clean http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu

You can add extra repositories to the list, in the same format as the existing ones if you want to mirror these too. You can also change the path where you want the mirrored deb files to be stored. In my case I had a /spare partition set aside for future use and this is just perfect, so I’ve uncommented set base_path and changed /var/… to /spare. You may also like to remove the deb-src entries if you’re low on space unless you frequently use these to rebuild packages.

To specify the architecture that you want to mirror for use deb-i386 or deb-amd64 as the line prefix. You can also insert use a country code to specify that your mirror should be built from a mirror in your own country. This should make both your initial download and subsequent downloads much faster. To do this for the UK for example, use http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu

My final /etc/apt/mirror.list (which requires 52.0 GB of space) is as follows:

############# config ##################
#
set base_path /spare
#
# set mirror_path $base_path/mirror
# set skel_path $base_path/skel
# set var_path $base_path/var
# set cleanscript $var_path/clean.sh
# set defaultarch
# set postmirror_script $var_path/postmirror.sh
# set run_postmirror 0
set nthreads 20
set _tilde 0
#
############# end config ##############

deb-amd64 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main restricted universe multiverse
deb-amd64 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-amd64 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-updates main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
#deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse

deb-i386 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main restricted universe multiverse
deb-i386 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-i386 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-updates main restricted universe multiverse

clean http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu

Having changed the base_directory, I need to create some directories under /spare like so:

sudo mkdir /spare/mirror
sudo mkdir /spare/skel
sudo mkdir /spare/var

Now we can perform our first manual update of the mirror by running the following:

sudo apt-mirror /etc/apt/mirror.list

If you’ve made a mistake with the config file and apt-mirror quits unexpectedly, you might find that the next time you run it you get the following:

apt-mirror is already running, exiting at /usr/bin/apt-mirror line 187.

If this is the case and you’re sure that apt-mirror is not running, then delete the lock file at /spare/var/apt-mirror.lock
Cron

In order to keep the mirror up-to-date automatically, we need to set up a cron job. Apt-mirror installs an example cron job at /etc/cron.d/apt-mirror:

#
# Regular cron jobs for the apt-mirror package
#
# 0 4 * * * apt-mirror /usr/bin/apt-mirror > /var/spool/apt-mirror/var/cron.log

If you remove the comment from the front of the last line, this will cause the mirror to be updated every day at 4am. If you want to change this you can read more about how cron jobs work here.
Apache – Configuring your mirror for http access

Ubuntu clients generally access repositories over http, we can set our mirror up for http access using apache2. If you’ve not already installed apache on your server, use:

sudo apt-get install apache2

Now we need to create a symbolic link from our repository mirror, to a directory served by apache:

sudo ln -s /spare/mirror/gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ /var/www/ubuntu

Clients

To get your clients to use the new mirror, simply update /etc/apt/sources.list with the new paths, for example:

# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 10.10 _Maverick Meerkat_ – Release amd64 (20101007)]/ maverick main restricted
# See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to
# newer versions of the distribution.

deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick main restricted
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick main restricted

## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the
## distribution.
deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick-updates main restricted
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates main restricted

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any
## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick universe
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick universe
deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick-updates universe
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates universe

## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu
## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to
## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in
## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu
## security team.
deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick multiverse
deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick-updates multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the ‘backports’
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical’s
## ‘partner’ repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu maverick partner
# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu maverick partner

## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by third-party
## developers who want to ship their latest software.
deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick multiverse
deb http://neo.danbishop.org/ubuntu/ maverick-updates multiverse
deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-updates multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from the ‘backports’
## repository.
## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as
## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes
## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features.
## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review
## or updates from the Ubuntu security team.
deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-backports main restricted universe multiverse

## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical’s
## ‘partner’ repository.
## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the
## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users.
# deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu maverick partner
# deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu maverick partner

## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by third-party
## developers who want to ship their latest software.
deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main
deb-src http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick main

deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security main restricted
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security multiverse
#deb http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ maverick-proposed restricted main multiverse universe
deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu maverick-security multiverse

Scribus, un PAO

http://doc.ubuntu-fr.org/scribus

 

http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Prise_en_main_de_Scribus

http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_with_Scribus

 

Imprimer au format livre :

http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/How_to_make_a_booklet

Method A-1: using psutils only

1) Change the document format to postscript:

pdf2ps file.pdf

This creates a postscript file named ‘file.ps’

2) Change the order of the pages:

psbook -s16 file.ps fileA.ps

Where 16 is the number of pages that your document has. It should be a multiple of four.

3) Arrange the pages so two logical pages are printed on one physical sheet:

psnup -2 -w21cm -h16.3cm -W10.5cm -H16.3cm fileA.ps fileB.ps

Which arranges two logical pages of the size 105x163mm on a sheet of the size 210x163mm. If you have different page sizes, then simply change the dimensions. (Take a look to the man page of psnup) You can alternatively use the -p and -P flags to indicate page sizes:

psnup -2 -pa4 -Pa5 fileA.ps fileB.ps

which will take two A5 pages and put them on A4 paper.

4) Transform it back to pdf:

ps2pdf fileB.ps

This creates the file ‘fileB.pdf’.

5) Print ‘fileB.pdf’ with the program of your choice.

Logiciel de contrôle à distance

Quels logiciels peuvent permettre de prendre la main à distance sur une autre machine à travers internet ?
Dans l’idéal, ce serait une application rapide à lancer, pré-configurée.
Deux types :

Héberger un serveur FTP

Prérequis :

Avoir une machine virtuelle de disponible.
Je vais utiliser une installation de Ubuntu server 12.04 LTS (voir article précédent).

Rediriger une adresse web vers l’IP dynamique du routeur

Création d’un compte sur un site de DNS dynamique.

Si comme beaucoup de monde, vous avez un routeur qui dispose d’une adresse ip dynamique, il va vous falloir utiliser un DNS dynamique :

Allez sur www.noip.com pour vous créer un profil.

Ajouter un hôte (host).